Alice Ball

Alice Augusta Ball
Alicia Augusta Ball.jpg
Born(1892-07-24)July 24, 1892
DiedDecember 31, 1916(1916-12-31) (aged 24)
Seattle, Washington
CitizenshipAmerican
Alma materUniversity of Hawaii
University of Washington
Known forTreatment of leprosy
Scientific career
FieldsChemistry

Alice Augusta Ball (July 24, 1892 – December 31, 1916) was an African American chemist who developed an injectable herbal extract (ethyl hydnocarpate) that was the most effective treatment for leprosy during the early 20th century.[1] She was the first woman and first African American to receive a master's degree from the University of Hawaii, and she was also the university's first female chemistry professor.[2]

Early life and education

Alice Augusta Ball was born on July 24, 1892, in Seattle, Washington, to James Presley and Laura Louise (Howard) Ball.[3] Ball was one of four children. She had two older brothers, William and Robert, along with a younger sister named Addie.[4] Her family was middle class and well off, as Ball's father was a newspaper editor, photographer, and lawyer.[3] Her grandfather, James Ball Sr., was a famous photographer, and one of the first Black Americans in the United States to make use of the early photography method daguerreotypy.[5][6]

Alice Ball and her family moved from Seattle to Honolulu during Alice's childhood in hopes that the warm weather would help with the arthritis symptoms of her grandfather, James Ball Sr. He died shortly after their move and they relocated back to Seattle after only a year of living in Hawaii.[7] After returning to Seattle, Ball attended Seattle High School and achieved top grades in the sciences. She graduated from Seattle High School in 1910.[4]

Ball then studied chemistry at the University of Washington,[2][8] earning a bachelor's degree in pharmaceutical chemistry and a second degree in pharmacy two years later.[4] With her pharmacy instructor, she published a 10-page article in the prestigious Journal of the American Chemical Society titled "Benzoylations in Ether Solution."[9] This kind of accomplishment was very rare for women of any race.[5]

Following her graduation, Ball was offered many scholarships. She received an offer from the University of California Berkeley, as well as the University of Hawaii, where she decided to study for a master's degree in chemistry.[10] At the University of Hawaii, she studied chaulmoogra oil and its chemical properties. Chaulmoogra oil was then the best treatment available for leprosy, and Ball developed a much more effective injectable form. In 1915, she became the first woman and first Black American to graduate with a master's degree from the University of Hawaii.[1] Alice Ball was also the first Black American and the first woman chemistry professor in the University of Hawaii's chemistry department.[11]

Treatment for leprosy

At the University of Hawaii, Ball investigated the chemical makeup and active principle of Piper methysticum (kava) for her master's thesis.[12] Because of this work, she was contacted by Dr Harry T. Hollmann at Kalihi Hospital in Hawaii, who needed an assistant for his research into the treatment of leprosy.[10]

At the time, leprosy or Hansen's Disease was a highly stigmatised disease with virtually no chance of recovery. People diagnosed with leprosy were exiled to the Hawaiian island of Molokai, with the expectation that they would die there.[7][13] The best treatment available was chaulmoogra oil, from the seeds of the Hydnocarpus wightianus tree from the Indian subcontinent, which had been used medicinally from as early as the 1300s. However, the treatment was not very effective, and every method of application was associated with problems. It was too sticky to be used effectively as a topical and as an injection the viscous consistency of the oil caused it to clump under the skin and form blisters, rather than being absorbed. These blisters formed in perfect rows and made it look "as if the patient's skin had been replaced by bubble wrap".[14] Ingesting the oil was not effective either because it had an acrid taste that usually made the patients vomit upon attempting to swallow it.[7]

At the young age of 23, Ball developed a technique that would make the oil injectable and absorbable by the body. Her technique involved isolating ester compounds from the oil and chemically modifying them, resulting in a substance that retained the oil's therapeutic properties and was absorbed by the body when injected.[15] Unfortunately, due to her untimely death, Ball was unable to publish her revolutionary findings.[16] Arthur L. Dean, a chemist and the president of the University of Hawaii, continued her work, published the findings, and began producing large quantities of the injectable chaulmoogra extract.[5] Dean published the findings without giving credit to Ball, and named the technique after himself, until Ball's supervisor Dr Hollmann spoke out about this.[17]

In 1920, a Hawaii physician reported in the Journal of the American Medical Association that 78 patients had been discharged from Kalihi Hospital by the board of health examiners after treatment with injections of Ball's modified chaulmoogra oil.[5][12][13] The isolated ethyl ester remained the preferred treatment for Hansen's disease until sulfonamide drugs were developed in the 1940s.[5]

Death and recognition

Alice Augusta Ball died on December 31, 1916, at the age of 24. She had become ill during her research and returned to Seattle for treatment a few months before her death.[1] A 1917 newspaper article from the Pacific Commercial Advertiser suggested that the cause may have been chlorine poisoning due to exposure that occurred while teaching in the laboratory.[10] It was reported that Ball was giving a demonstration on how to properly use a gas mask in preparation for an attack since World War I was raging in Europe.[18] However, the cause of her death is unknown as her original death certificate was altered to read tuberculosis.[3]

The university president at the time, Arthur L. Dean, continued her work where the chaulmoogra injections become the most popular form of treatment. She almost wasn't credited at all for her discovery until in 1922 when she was briefly mentioned in a medical journal, with her method being called the "Ball Method".[19] In 2000, the university finally honored Ball by dedicating a plaque to her on the school's chaulmoogra tree behind Bachman Hall.[10] On the same day, the former Lieutenant Governor of Hawaii, Mazie Hirono, declared February 29 "Alice Ball Day," which is now celebrated every four years.[2][17] In 2007, Ball was honored by the University of Hawaii Board of Regents with a Medal of Distinction.[2] In March 2016, Hawaiʻi Magazine ranked Ball in a list of the most influential women in Hawaiian history.[20] A new park in Seattle's Greenwood neighborhood was named after Ball.[21][22] In 2019, the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine added Ball's name to the frieze atop its main building, along with Florence Nightingale and Marie Curie, in recognition of their contribution to science and global health research.[23]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Jackson, Miles (2007-09-20). "Ball, Alice Augusta". Black Past. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
  2. ^ a b c d Brown, Jeannette (2012). African American Women Chemists. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 19–24. ISBN 978-0-19-974288-2.
  3. ^ a b c Jackson, Miles (2004). "African Americans in Hawai'i". Social Process in Hawai'i. 43: 168–174. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
  4. ^ a b c Collins, Sibrina Nichelle (12 May 2016). "Alice Augusta Ball". Undark.
  5. ^ a b c d e Wermager, Paul; Carl Heltzel (February 2007). "Alice A. Augusta Ball" (PDF). ChemMatters. 25 (1): 16–19. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-07-13. Retrieved 18 June 2014.
  6. ^ "What is a daguerreotype?". Daguerreobase. Retrieved December 3, 2017.
  7. ^ a b c Swaby, Rachel (2015). Headstrong: 52 Women Who Changed Science—and the World. New York: Broadway Books. pp. 11–13. ISBN 9780553446791.
  8. ^ Guttman, D. Molentia; Ernest Golden (2011). African Americans in Hawaii. Charleston, South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-7385-8116-3. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
  9. ^ Dehn, William M.; Ball, Alice A. (1914). "Benzoylations in Ether Solution". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 36 (10): 2091–2101. doi:10.1021/ja02187a015.
  10. ^ a b c d Mendheim, Beverly (September 2007). "Lost and Found: Alice Augusta Ball, an Extraordinary Woman of Hawai'i Nei". Northwest Hawaii Times. Retrieved 17 May 2013.
  11. ^ "Ball, Alice Augusta". Scholar Space. Retrieved November 20, 2017.
  12. ^ a b University of Hawaii at Manoa. "Ball, Alice Augusta". Scholar Space. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
  13. ^ a b "Alice Ball and the Fight against Leprosy". Bluestocking Oxford. 2016-02-29. Retrieved 2018-11-04.
  14. ^ Inglis-Arkell, Esther (8 May 2015). "We Had A Cure For Leprosy For Centuries, But Couldn't Get It To Work". io9. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  15. ^ Ignotofsky, Rachel (2016). "Women in Science: 50 Fearless Pioneers Who Changed the World" Ten Speed Press: pp.45
  16. ^ Maggs, Sam (2016). "Wonder Women: 25 Innovators, Inventors, and Trailblazers Who Changed History." Quirk Books: pp. 36-39.
  17. ^ a b Cederlind, Erika (29 February 2008). "A tribute to Alice Bell: a Scientist whose Work with Leprosy was Overshadowed by a White Successor". The Daily of the University of Washington. Archived from the original on 2014-08-06. Retrieved 19 May 2013.
  18. ^ UWSOP alumni legend Alice Ball, Class of 1914, solved leprosy therapy riddle
  19. ^ "How the Woman Who Found a Leprosy Treatment Was Almost Lost to History". National Geographic News. 2018-02-28. Retrieved 2019-03-16.
  20. ^ Dekneef, Matthew (March 9, 2016). "14 extraordinary women in Hawaii history everyone should know". Hawaiʻi Magazine. Honolulu. Retrieved March 9, 2016.
  21. ^ "Alice Ball Park". Seattle Parks and Recreation. Retrieved February 22, 2019.
  22. ^ Lambert, Ken (August 18, 2019). "Seattle's new Alice Ball Park named for a pioneering medical researcher". Seattle Times. Seattle. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
  23. ^ "Women health pioneers honoured on LSHTM's iconic London building for the first time". Retrieved September 9, 2019.

External links