|Born||November 9, 1731|
|Died||October 9, 1806 (aged 74)|
|Other names||Benjamin Bannaker|
|Occupation||almanac author, surveyor, farmer|
free African-American almanac author, surveyor, naturalist, and farmer. Born in Baltimore County, Maryland, to a free African-American woman and a former slave, Banneker had little formal education and was largely self-taught. He is known for being part of a group led by Major Andrew Ellicott that surveyed the original borders of the District of Columbia, the federal capital district of the United States.(November 9, 1731 – October 9, 1806) was a
Banneker's knowledge of astronomy helped him author a commercially successful series of almanacs. He corresponded with Thomas Jefferson on the topics of slavery and racial equality, Jefferson having earlier drafted the United States Declaration of Independence. Abolitionists and advocates of racial equality promoted and praised Banneker's works.
Although a fire on the day of Banneker's funeral destroyed many of his papers and belongings, one of his journals and several of his remaining artifacts are presently available for public viewing. Parks, schools, streets and other tributes have commemorated Banneker throughout the years since he lived.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Notable works
- 3 Political views
- 4 Correspondence with Thomas Jefferson
- 5 Death
- 6 Banneker artifacts
- 7 Mythology and commemorations
- 8 Notes
- 9 Copies of Banneker's publications
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
freed slave from Guinea. There are two conflicting accounts of Banneker's family history. Banneker himself and his earliest biographers described him as having only African ancestry. None of Banneker's surviving papers describe a white ancestor or identify the name of his grandmother.was born on November 9, 1731, in Baltimore County, Maryland to Mary Banneky, a free black, and Robert, a
However, later biographers have contended that Banneker's mother was the child of Molly Welsh, a white indentured servant, and an African slave named Banneka. The first published description of Molly Welsh was based on interviews with her descendants that took place in 1836, long after the deaths of both Molly and Benjamin. A genealogist has noted that the name Bannaker may have had the same origin as the town of in today's Liberia, which at the time was part of the slave trade.
Molly may have purchased Banneka to help establish a farm located near the future site of Ellicott's Mills, Maryland, west of Baltimore. One biographer has suggested that Banneka may have been a member of the Dogon tribe that is reputed to have had knowledge of astronomy (see: Dogon astronomical beliefs). Molly supposedly freed and married Banneka, who may have shared his knowledge of astronomy with her. Although born after Banneka's death, Benjamin may have acquired some knowledge of astronomy from Molly.
In 1737, Banneker was named at the age of 6 on the deed of his family's 100-acre (0.40 km2) farm in the Patapsco Valley in rural Baltimore County. The remainder of his early life is not well documented. As a young teenager, he may have met and befriended Peter Heinrichs, a Quaker who established a school near the Banneker farm. Quakers were leaders in the anti-slavery movement and advocates of racial equality (see Quakers in the abolition movement and Testimony of equality). Heinrichs may have shared his personal library and provided Banneker with his only classroom instruction. Banneker's formal education apparently ended when he was old enough to help on his family's farm.
In 1753 at about the age of 21, Banneker completed a wooden clock that struck on the hour. He appears to have modeled his clock from a borrowed pocket watch by carving each piece to scale. The clock purportedly continued to work until his death.
In 1772, brothers Andrew Ellicott, John Ellicott and Joseph Ellicott moved from Bucks County, Pennsylvania, and bought land along the Patapsco Falls near Banneker's farm on which to construct gristmills, around which the village of Ellicott's Mills (now Ellicott City) subsequently developed. The Ellicotts were Quakers and shared the same views on racial equality as did many of their faith. Banneker studied the mills and became acquainted with their proprietors.
In 1788, George Ellicott, the son of Andrew Ellicott, loaned Banneker books and equipment to begin a more formal study of astronomy. During the following year, Banneker sent George his work calculating a solar eclipse.
In 1790, Banneker prepared an ephemeris for 1791, which he hoped would be placed within a published almanac. However, he was unable to find a printer that was willing to publish and distribute the almanac.
Survey of the original boundaries of the District of Columbia
In February 1791, surveyor Major Andrew Ellicott (the son of Joseph Ellicott and cousin of George Ellicott), having left at the request of U.S. Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson a surveying team in western New York that he had been leading, hired Banneker as a replacement to assist in the initial survey of the boundaries of a new federal district. Formed from land along the Potomac River that the states of Maryland and Virginia ceded to the federal government of the United States in accordance with the 1790 federal Residence Act and later legislation, the territory that became the original District of Columbia was a square measuring 10 miles (16 km) on each side, totaling 100 square miles (260 km2) (see: Founding of Washington, D.C.). Ellicott's team placed boundary marker stones at or near every mile point along the borders of the new capital territory (see: Boundary Markers of the Original District of Columbia).
Biographers have stated that Banneker's duties on the survey consisted primarily of making astronomical observations at Jones Point in Alexandria, Virginia, to ascertain the location of the starting point for the survey. They have also stated that Banneker maintained a clock that he used to relate points on the ground to the positions of stars at specific times.
However, some have noted that Banneker's actual role in the survey is uncertain, as his involvement in the effort "rests on extremely meager documentation". An April 21, 1791, news report of the April 15 dedication ceremony for the first boundary stone (the south cornerstone) stated that it was Andrew Ellicott who "ascertained the precise point from which the first line of the district was to proceed". The news report did not mention Banneker's name.
Banneker left the boundary survey in April 1791 within three months of its initiation due to illness and difficulties completing the survey at age 59. In addition, Andrew Ellicott's younger brothers, Benjamin and Joseph Ellicott, who usually assisted Andrew, were able to join the survey at that time. Banneker therefore returned to his home near Ellicott's Mills. The Ellicotts and other members of the surveying team then laid the remaining Virginia marker stones later in 1791. The team laid the Maryland stones and completed the boundary survey in 1792.
After returning to Ellicott's Mills, Banneker made astronomical calculations that predicted eclipses and planetary conjunctions for inclusion in an almanac and ephemeris for the year of 1792. To aid Banneker in his efforts to have his almanac published, Andrew Ellicott (who had earlier authored several almanacs and ephemerides of his own) forwarded Banneker's ephemeris to James Pemberton, the president of the Pennsylvania Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery and for the Relief of Free Negroes Unlawfully Held in Bondage.
Pemberton then asked William Waring, a Philadelphia mathematician and ephemeris calculator, and David Rittenhouse, a prominent American astronomer, surveyor and scientific instrument maker who was at the time serving as the president of the American Philosophical Society, to confirm the accuracy of Banneker's work. Waring endorsed Banneker's work, stating, "I have examined 's Almanac for 1792, and am of the Opinion that it well deserves the Acceptance and Encouragement of the Public."
Rittenhouse responded to Pemberton by stating that Banneker's ephemeris "was a very extraordinary performance, considering the Colour of the Author" and that he "had no doubt that the Calculations are sufficiently accurate for the purposes of a common Almanac. .... Every instance of Genius amongst the Negroes is worthy of attention, because their suppressors seem to lay great stress on their supposed inferior mental abilities." Banneker reportedly replied to Rittenhouse's endorsement by stating: "I am annoyed to find that the subject of my race is so much stressed. The work is either correct or it is not. In this case, I believe it to be perfect."
Having secured the support of Pemberton, Rittenhouse and Waring, Banneker delivered a copy of his almanac to William Goddard, a Baltimore printer who had earlier published The Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland and Virginia Almanack and Ephemeris for each year from 1784 to 1790, except 1786. Goddard then agreed to print and distribute Banneker's work within an almanac and ephemeris for the year of 1792.
In their preface to Banneker's Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland and Virginia Almanack and Ephemeris, for the Year of our Lord, 1792, the editors of the work wrote that they:
... flatter themselves that a philanthropic Public, in this enlightened Era, will be induced to give their Patronage and Support to this Work, not only an Account of its intrinsic Merit, (it having met the Approbation of several of the most distinguished Astronomers in America, particularly the celebrated Mr. Rittenhouse) but from similar Motives to those which induced the Editors to give this Calculation the Preference, the ardent desire of drawing modest Merit from Obscurity, and controverting the long-established illiberal Prejudice against the Blacks.
Banneker's 1792 work was the first in a six-year series of almanacs and ephemerides that printers agreed to publish and sell. The almanacs, some of which appeared in several editions during the same year, were printed in at least seven cities in five states: Baltimore; Philadelphia; Wilmington, Delaware; Alexandria, Virginia; Petersburg, Virginia; Richmond, Virginia; and Trenton, New Jersey.
The title page of a Baltimore edition of Banneker's 1792 almanac and ephemeris stated that the publication contained:
the Motions of the Sun and Moon, the True Places and Aspects of the Planets, the Rising and Setting of the Sun, Place and Age of the Moon, &c. – The Lunations, Conjunctions, Eclipses, Judgment of the Weather, Festivals, and other remarkable Days; Days for holding the Supreme and Circuit Courts of the United States, as also the useful Courts in Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia. Also – several useful Tables, and valuable Receipts. – Various Selections from the Commonplace–Book of the Kentucky Philosopher, an American Sage; with interesting and entertaining Essays, in Prose and Verse –the whole comprising a greater, more pleasing, and useful Variety than any Work of the Kind and Price in North America.
In addition to the information that its title page described, the almanac contained a tide table for the Chesapeake Bay region. That edition and others contained tables listing the times of high tides or the methods for calculating high water at Cape Charles and Point Lookout, Virginia, Annapolis and Baltimore, Maryland, Boston, Quebec, Nantucket, Hatteras, New York, Halifax, Philadelphia and other locations. Monthly tables in each edition listed astronomical data and weather predictions for each of the months' dates.
A Philadelphia edition of Banneker's 1795 almanac contained a lengthy account of a yellow fever epidemic that had struck that city in 1793 (see: 1793 Philadelphia yellow fever epidemic). Written by a committee whose president was the city's mayor, Matthew Clarkson, the account related the presumed origins and causes of the epidemic, as well as the extent and duration of the event.
The title page of a Baltimore edition of Banneker's 1795 almanac had a woodcut portrait of him as he may have appeared. However, a biographer later concluded that the portrait was more likely a portrayal of an idealized African-American youth.
The almanacs' editors prefaced the publications with adulatory references to Banneker and his race. Editions of his 1792 and 1793 almanacs contained copies of a lengthy commendation that James McHenry, a 1787 signer of the United States Constitution and self-described friend of Banneker, had written in August 1791.
Fain would the muse exalt her tuneful lays,
And chant in strains sublime Banneker's praise;
Fain would the soar on Fame's majestic wing,
Thy genius, great Banneker, to sing;
Thy talents and thy greatness would I shew,
Not in applausive strains to thee undue;
Long may thou live an evidence to shew,
That Afric's sable race have talents too.
And may thy genius bright its strength retain;
Tho' nature to decline may still remain;
And may favour us to thy latest years
With thy Ephemeris call'd Banneker's.
A work which ages yet unborn shall name
And be the monument of lasting fame;
A work which after ages shall adore,
When Banneker, alas! shall be no more!
The writer of a tribute in a 1796 Baltimore edition quoted a quatrain and amended another that an Englishman, Thomas Gray, had placed in a popular poem first published in 1751 (see Adaptations and parodies of Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard). The revised rhyme stated:
Supported by Andrew, George and Elias Ellicott and heavily promoted by the Society for the Promotion of the Abolition of Slavery of Maryland and of Pennsylvania, the early editions of the almanacs achieved commercial success. After these editions were published, William Wilberforce, William Pitt, Charles James Fox and other prominent abolitionists praised Banneker and his works in the British House of Commons.
In 1796, Banneker gave a manuscript of one of his almanacs to Suzanna Mason, a member of the Ellicott family who was visiting his home. In 1836, Mason's daughter wrote a published memoir of her mother's life, letters and manuscripts. The memoir contained a copy of a poem that Mason had sent to Banneker shortly after her 1796 visit. A portion of the verse stated:
But thou, a man exhalted high,
Conspicuous in the world's keen eye,
On record now thy name's enrolled,
And future ages will be told,
There lived a man called Banneker,
An African astronomer.
Banneker kept a series of journals that contained his notebooks for astronomical observations, his diary and accounts of his dreams. The journals, only one of which escaped a fire on the day of his funeral, additionally contained a number of mathematical calculations and puzzles. The surviving journal described in April 1800 his recollections of the 1749, 1766 and 1783 emergences of Brood X of the seventeen-year periodical cicada, Magicicada septendecim, and stated, "... they may be expected again in they year 1800 which is Seventeen Since their third appearance to me." The journal also recorded Banneker's observations on the hives and behavior of honey bees.
Banneker's 1792 almanac contained an anonymous extract of an essay in the Columbian Magazine titled "On Negro Slavery, and the Slave Trade". After quoting a statement that David Rittenhouse had made (that Negroes "have been doomed to endless slavery by us — merely because their bodies have been disposed to reflect or absorb the rays of light in a way different from ours"), the extract concluded:
The time, it is hoped is not very remote, when those ill-fated people, dwelling in this land of freedom, shall commence a participation with the white inhabitants, in the blessings of liberty; and experience the kindly protection of government, for the essential rights of human nature.
A Philadelphia edition of Banneker's 1793 almanac contained copies of pleas for peace that the English anti-slavery poet William Cowper and others had authored, as well as anti-slavery speeches and writings from England and America. The latter included extracts from speeches that William Pitt and Charles James Fox had given to the British House of Commons in 1792, an extract from a 1789 poem by an English Quaker, Thomas Wilkinson, and an extract from a query in Thomas Jefferson's 1787 Notes on the State of Virginia.
The 1793 almanac also contained a copy of "A Plan of a Peace-Office, for the United States". Although the almanac did not identify the Plan's author, writers later attributed the work to Benjamin Rush, a signer of the 1776 Declaration of Independence. The Plan proposed the appointment of a "Secretary of Peace", described the Secretary's powers and advocated federal support and promotion of the Christian religion. The Plan stated:
- 1. Let a Secretary of Peace be appointed to preside in this office; ....; let him be a genuine republican and a sincere Christian ....
- 2. Let a power be given to the Secretary to establish and maintain free schools in every city, village and township in the United States; ... Let the youth of our country be instructed in reading, writing, and arithmetic, and in the doctrines of a religion of some kind; the Christian religion should be preferred to all others; for it belongs to this religion exclusively to teach us not only to cultivate peace with all men, but to forgive—nay more, to love our very enemies ....
- 3. Let every family be furnished at public expense, by the Secretary of this office, with an American edition of the Bible ....
- 4. Let the following sentence be inscribed in letters of gold over the door of every home in the United States: The Son of Man Came into the World, Not To Destroy Men's Lives, But To Save Them.
- 5. ....
Correspondence with Thomas Jefferson
On August 19, 1791, after departing the federal capital area, Banneker wrote a letter to Thomas Jefferson, who in 1776 had drafted the United States Declaration of Independence and in 1791 was serving as the United States Secretary of State (see: List of Secretaries of State of the United States). Quoting language in the Declaration, the letter expressed a plea for justice for African Americans.
To further support this plea, Banneker included within the letter a handwritten manuscript of an almanac for 1792 containing his ephemeris with his astronomical calculations. He subsequently placed copies of the letter and Jefferson's reply in his journal, in a Baltimore edition of his 1793 almanac and in a 1792 pamphlet that a printer distributed and sold in Philadelphia, where another printer was distributing and selling a different edition of that almanac.
In the letter, Banneker accused Jefferson of criminally using fraud and violence to oppress his slaves by stating:
.... Sir, how pitiable is it to reflect, that altho you were so fully convinced of the benevolence of the Father of mankind, and of his equal and impartial distribution of those rights and privileges which he had conferred upon them, that you should at the same time counteract his mercies, in detaining by fraud and violence so numerous a part of my brethren under groaning captivity and cruel oppression, that you should at the Same time be found guilty of that most criminal act, which you professedly detested in others, with respect to your Selves.
The letter ended:
.... you dare to call yourselves the masters of wretches whom you have acquired by fraud, and retain by violence! ....
If there be an object truly ridiculous in nature, it is an American patriot, signing resolutions of independency with the one hand, and with the other brandishing a whip over his affrighted slaves. ....
There can be no prescription pleaded against truth and justice; and the continuance of the evil is so far from justifying, that it is an exageration of the crime.
Without directly responding to Banneker's accusation, Jefferson replied to Banneker's letter in a series of nuanced statements that expressed his interest in the advancement of the equality of America's black population. Jefferson's reply stated:
Philadelphia Aug. 30. 1791.
I thank you sincerely for your letter of the 19th. instant and for the Almanac it contained. no body wishes more than I do to see such proofs as you exhibit, that nature has given to our black brethren, talents equal to those of the other colours of men, & that the appearance of a want of them is owing merely to the degraded condition of their existence both in Africa & America. I can add with truth that no body wishes more ardently to see a good system commenced for raising the condition both of their body & mind to what it ought to be, as fast as the imbecillity of their present existence, and other circumstance which cannot be neglected, will admit. I have taken the liberty of sending your almanac to Monsieur de Condorcet, Secretary of the Academy of sciences at Paris, and member of the Philanthropic society because I considered it as a document to which your whole colour had a right for their justification against the doubts which have been entertained of them. I am with great esteem, Sir,
Your most obedt. humble servt.
Marie-Jean-Antoine-Nicolas de Caritat, Marquis de Condorcet, to whom Jefferson sent Banneker's almanac, was a noted French mathematician and abolitionist who was a member of the French Société des Amis des Noirs (Society of the Friends of the Blacks). It appears that the Academy of Sciences itself did not receive the almanac.
When writing his letter, Banneker informed Jefferson that his 1791 work with Andrew Ellicott on the District boundary survey had affected his work on his 1792 ephemeris and almanac by stating:
.... And altho I had almost declined to make my calculation for the ensuing year, in consequence of that time which I had allotted therefor being taking up at the Federal Territory by the request of Mr. Andrew Ellicott, ....
On the same day that he replied to Banneker (August 30, 1791), Jefferson sent a letter to the Marquis de Condorcet that contained the following paragraph relating to Banneker's race, abilities, almanac and work with Andrew Ellicott:
I am happy to be able to inform you that we have now in the United States a negro, the son of a black man born in Africa, and of a black woman born in the United States, who is a very respectable mathematician. I procured him to be employed under one of our chief directors in laying out the new federal city on the Patowmac, & in the intervals of his leisure, while on that work, he made an Almanac for the next year, which he sent me in his own hand writing, & which I inclose to you. I have seen very elegant solutions of Geometrical problems by him. Add to this that he is a very worthy & respectable member of society. He is a free man. I shall be delighted to see these instances of moral eminence so multiplied as to prove that the want of talents observed in them is merely the effect of their degraded condition, and not proceeding from any difference in the structure of the parts on which intellect depends.
In 1809, three years after Banneker's death, Jefferson expressed a different opinion of Banneker in a letter to Joel Barlow that criticized a "diatribe" that a French abolitionist, Henri Grégoire, had written in 1808:
the whole do not amount in point of evidence, to what we know ourselves of Banneker. we know he had spherical trigonometry enough to make almanacs, but not without the suspicion of aid from Ellicot, who was his neighbor & friend, & never missed an opportunity of puffing him. I have a long letter from Banneker which shews him to have had a mind of very common stature indeed.
Banneker never married. Because of declining sales, his 1797 almanacs were the last that printers published. After selling much of his homesite to the Ellicotts and others, he died in his log cabin nine years later on October 9, 1806, aged 74. His chronic alcoholism, which worsened as he aged, may have contributed to his death.
An obituary concluded:
Mr. Banneker is a prominent instance to prove that a descendant of Africa is susceptible of as great mental improvement and deep knowledge into the mysteries of nature as that of any other nation.
A commemorative obelisk that the Maryland Bicentennial Commission and the State Commission on Afro American History and Culture erected in 1977 near his unmarked grave stands in the yard of the Mt. Gilboa African Methodist Episcopal Church in Oella, Maryland (see Mount Gilboa Chapel).
On the day of his funeral in 1806, a fire burned Banneker's log cabin to the ground, destroying many of his belongings and papers. A member of the Ellicott family, which had retained Banneker's only remaining journal, donated the document and other Banneker manuscripts to the Maryland Historical Society in 1987. The family also retained several items that Banneker had used after borrowing them from George Ellicott.
In 1996, a descendant of George Ellicott decided to sell at auction some of the items, including a table, candlesticks and molds. Although supporters of the planned in Oella, Maryland, had hoped to obtain these and several other items related to Banneker and the Ellicotts, a Virginia investment banker won most of the items with a series of bids that totaled $49,750. The purchaser stated that he expected to keep some of the items and to donate the rest to the planned Historical Park and MuseumAfrican American Civil War Memorial museum in Washington, D.C.
In 1997, it was announced that the artifacts would be loaned to the Banneker-Douglass Museum in Annapolis, Maryland. After receiving the artifacts, the Oella museum placed the table, candlesticks and candle molds into an exhibit.Historical Park and Museum in Oella and to the
Mythology and commemorations
A substantial mythology exaggerating 's accomplishments has developed during the two centuries that have elapsed since his death, becoming a part of African-American culture (see Mythology of ). Several such urban legends describe Banneker's alleged activities in the Washington, D.C. area around the time that he assisted Andrew Ellicott in the federal district boundary survey. Others involve his clock, his almanacs and his journals.
A United States postage stamp and the names of a number of recreational and cultural facilities, schools, streets and other facilities and institutions throughout the United States have commemorated Banneker's documented and mythical accomplishments throughout the years since he lived (see Commemorations of ). In 1983, Rita Dove, a future Poet Laureate of the United States, wrote a biographical verse about Banneker while on the faculty of Arizona State University.
- (1) Cropped image extracted from Highsmith, Carol M. (photographer). "": Surveyor-Inventor-Astronomer", mural by Maxime Seelbinder, at the Recorder of Deeds building, built in 1943. 515 D St., NW, Washington, D.C." Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. Archived from the original (photograph) on 2017-11-01. Retrieved 2017-11-05.
(2) "Recorder of Deeds Building: Seelbinder Mural – Washington DC". The Living New Deal. Archived from the original on 2015-03-22. Retrieved 2016-10-03.
(3) Norfleet, Nicole (2010-03-11). "D.C. Recorder of Deeds moving but fate of murals unclear". The Washington Post. Washington, D.C. Archived from the original on 2016-10-03. Retrieved 2016-10-03.
(4) Sefton, D. P., DC Preservation League, Washington, D.C. (July 1, 2010). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Recorder of Deeds Building" (PDF). Washington, D.C: District of Columbia Office of Planning. pp. 18–19. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 5, 2016. Retrieved October 3, 2016.
Although the ROD Building was a municipal building, the District of Columbia's peculiar sovereignty status required that the federal government approve its construction, and the Treasury Department Section of Fine Arts play a major role in its arts program. .... The Treasury Section's December 1, 1942 announcement of the ROD Building mural competition was a term paper-like, ten page document that required artists to submit their entries unsigned for anonymous judging.81 Mural subjects had been "carefully worked out by the Recorder...following intensive research." Dr. Tompkins had determined that "in view of the history of the office of the Recorder of Deeds... the united theme... [will] reflect a phase of the contribution of the Negro to the American nation." The announcement prescribed each of the seven mural's placement, size, subject, and setting in detail, citing historical reference works for its content. For example, "Surveys the District of Columbia" was to "show the presentation by Banneker and Mayor Ellicott, of the plans of the District of Columbia to the President, [and] Mr. Thomas Jefferson" in the presence of Benjamin Franklin and Alexander Hamilton.
- ". Encyclopedia of World Biography. Advameg, Inc. 2017. Archived from Biography"the original on 2017-10-02. Retrieved 2017-09-27.
- ""Robert Bannaky" marker". HMdb: The Historical Marker Database. Archived from the original on 2011-03-03. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- Bedini, 2008 Archived 2016-02-03 at the Wayback Machine
- "Glawe". Archived from the original on 2015-08-18. Retrieved 2015-08-18.
- (1) Banneker, 1792b, p. 6: Sir, I freely and cheerfully acknowledge, that I am of the African race, and in that color which is natural to them of the deepest dye"
(2) Banneker, 1791, pp. 2—3. "The Editors have taken the Liberty to annex a Letter from Mr. McHenry, containing Particulars respecting Benjamin, which, it is presumed, will prove more acceptable to the Reader, than anything further in the prefatory Way. —
"Baltimore, August 20, 1791.
"Mssrs. Goddard and Angell,
" , a free Negro, has calculated an Almanack for the ensuing Year, 1792, ..... . "This Man is about fifty-nine years in age; he was born in Baltimore County; his father was an African, and his mother, the offspring of African parents. — ...."
(3) Latrobe, p. 6: "His father was a native African, and his mother the child of natives of Africa; so that to no admixture of the blood of the white man was he indebted for his peculiar and extraordinary abilities."
- Perot, full text. pp. 5, 19–21, 33–36, 67.
- (1) Russell, George Ely (December 2006). "Molly Welsh: Alleged Grandmother of . National Genealogical Society Quarterly. "National Genealogical Society. 94 (4): 305–14. ISSN 0027-934X. LCCN 17012813. OCLC 50612104 – via Google Books.
- (1) Tyson, p. 4 Archived 2016-03-26 at the Wayback Machine
(2) Johnson. "For some years, Benjamin seems to have served as an indentured laborer on the Prince George's County plantation of Mary Welsh, who had dealings with the Bannaky family and in 1773 executed her dead husband's instructions to release several of her labor force including "Negro Ben, born free age 43." Walsh was surely not Banneker's grandmother, as argued by many biographers, but she did leave him a substantial legacy. He then lived alone as a tobacco farmer near the Patapsco River."
(3) Heinegg, Paul (2016-12-11). "Banneker Family". Free African Americans of Maryland and Delaware. Archived from the original on 2017-06-24. Retrieved 2017-06-24.
- Tyson, p. 3 Archived 2016-03-26 at the Wayback Machine
- Heinegg, Paul (2016-12-11). "Banneker Family". Free African Americans of Maryland and Delaware. Archived from the original on 2017-06-24. Retrieved 2017-06-24.
- Cerami, pp. 7, 15
- Bedini, 1999, pp. 25, 321.
- Hurry, Robert J. (2007). Hockey, Thomas (ed.). Banneker, Benjamin. Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers. New York: Springer. pp. 91–92. ISBN 9780387310220. OCLC 65764986. Retrieved 2015-01-24 – via Google Books..
- (1) Glawe Archived 2015-08-18 at the Wayback Machine
This indenture made this tenth day of March in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred thirty seven between Richard Gist of Baltimore County in the province of Maryland grant of the one part, Robert Bannaky and Benjamin Bannaky this now of the County and province aforementioned of the other part, Witnesseth that the deed Richard Gist for and in consideration of the sum of seven thousand pounds of tobacco whence paid to the said Richard Gist the receipt whereof he do able by these presents acquits and discharges them the said Robert Bannaky and Benjamin Bannaky his son thereon heirs and assign for over one hundred acres of land lying in the said county circumscribed by the bounds hereafter by profit being the moiety of a hundred acres of land.
J. Wells Stokes"
(2) Facsimile of handwritten deed conveying property from Richard Gist to Robert Bannaky and Benjamin Bannaky. In Clark, James W., Maryland Commission on Afro-American and Indian History and Culture, Annapolis, Maryland (1976-06-14). " Homesite"(PDF). Maryland State Historical Trust: Inventory Form for State Historic Sites Survey. Annapolis, Maryland: Maryland State Archives. p. 16. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-08-18. Retrieved 2015-11-15.
- (1) Cerami, pp. 24–26
(2) Corrigan, p. 2: "Cerami constructs a credible narrative of Banneker's life, but fails to document his research."
- "Quakers & Slavery". Triptych: Tri-College Digital Library. Bryn Mawr College. Archived from the original on 2014-04-19. Retrieved 2014-09-07.
- Latrobe, p. 7.
- (1) Tyson, pp. 5, 9 -10, 18.
(2) Hartshorne, Henry, ed. (1884-06-21). "Book Notice: Banneker, the Afric-American Astronomer. From the posthumous papers of M.E. Tyson. Edited by Her Daughter. Phila. 1020 Arch Street. 1884". Friends Review: A Religious, Literary and Miscellaneous Journal. 1316 Filbert Street, Philadelphia: Franklin E. Paige. 37 (46): 729. Archived from the original on 2017-01-16. Retrieved 2017-01-16 – via Google Books.
Showing his inventive facility while quite a youth by making a good wooden clock without ever seeing a clock, being only guided by examining a borrowed watch, he (Banneker) ....
(3) Bedini, 1964, p. 22.
(4) Bedini, 1971, p. 45. "Completed in 1753, Bannekers' clock continued to operate until his death, more than 50 years later."
(5) Bailey, Chris H. (1975). Two Hundred Years of American Clocks & Watches. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc. p. 73. ISBN 0139351302. LCCN 75013714. OCLC 756413530. Retrieved 2019-03-29 – via Google Books.
Of his own design, the clock employed wooden gears and was apparently used until it was destroyed by the fire that consumed Banneker's home while his funeral was in progress in October, 1806
(6) Bedini, 2008 "At about the age of twenty-one he (Banneker) constructed a striking wall clock, without ever having seen one. .... The clock continued to function successfully for more than fifty years, until his death."
- Tyson, pp. 4–5 Archived 2016-03-26 at the Wayback Machine
- (1) Heinegg, Paul (2016-12-11). "Banneker Family". Free African Americans of Maryland and Delaware. Archived from the original on 2017-06-24. Retrieved 2017-06-24.
He () signed the Baltimore County, Maryland petition of 27 January 1768 to move the county seat from Joppa to Baltimore.
(2) "Petitions for and against removal of the county seat of Baltimore County from Joppa to Baltimore Town, 1768: A. Petitions for removal of the County Seat" (PDF). Maryland State Archives (Archives of Maryland On-line). 61: 520–554.
- Williams, p. 387.
- "Historic Ellicott City's History". ellicottcity.net. Ellicott City, Maryland: Ellicott City Graphic Arts. Archived from the original on 2015-08-10. Retrieved 2016-02-21.
- Tyson, Martha Ellicott (1871). A Brief Account of the Settlement of Ellicott's Mills, with Fragments of History therewith Connected: Written at the request of Evan T. Ellicott, Baltimore, 1865: Read before the Maryland Historical Society, Nov. 3, 1870. Maryland Historical Society: Fund-Publication, No. 4. Baltimore: Printed by J. Murphy: Printer to the Maryland Historical Society. pp. 3–4. OCLC 2311761. Archived from the original on 2017-01-31. Retrieved 2016-02-21 – via Google Books.
- Bedini, 1999, pp. 185–190.
- Tyson, p. 6.
- Time Line
- Bedini, 1969, p. 8.
- Williams, p. 389. Archived 2015-06-07 at the Wayback Machine
- Tise, Larry E. (1998). Africans in the Land of Liberty: African-American Enlightenment. The American Counterrevolution: A Retreat from Liberty, 1783–1800. Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books. pp. 213–215. ISBN 0585347220. OCLC 47009059. Retrieved 2017-03-14 – via Google Books..
- National Capital Planning Commission (1976). History. Boundary markers of the Nation's Capital: a proposal for their preservation & protection: a National Capital Planning Commission Bicentennial report. Washington, D.C.: National Capital Planning Commission; For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, United States Government Printing Office. pp. 3–9. OCLC 3772302. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2016-02-22 – via HathiTrust Digital Library..
- (1) Bedini, 1999, p. 113.
(2) "Boundary Stones of the District of Columbia". boundarystones.org. Archived from the original on 2014-12-27. Retrieved 2014-01-27.
(3) Crew, pp. 87–103 Archived 2013-06-22 at the Wayback Machine
- Langelan, Chas (2012-08-24). "Andrew Ellicott and his Survey of the Federal Territory on the Potomac, 1791–1793". Philip Lee Philips Society Annual Conference: Visualizing The Nation's Capital: Two Centuries of Mapping Washington, D.C., Session 2 (moderator: Bill Stanley). Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. Archived from the original on 2016-03-02. Retrieved 2016-02-21.
- "Text of Residence Act". American Memory: A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation: U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates, 1774 - 1875: Statutes at Large, 1st Congress, 2nd Session, p. 130, July 16, 1790: Chapter 28: An Act for establishing the temporary and permanent seat of the Government of the United States. Library of Congress. Archived from the original on September 13, 2009. Retrieved June 9, 2018.
- Bedini, 1999, pp. 118–121.
- Boyd, Julian P., ed. (1974). Locating the Federal District: Editorial Note: Footnote number 119. The Papers of Thomas Jefferson: 24 January–31 March 1791. 19. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. pp. 41–43. ISBN 9780691185255. LCCN 50007486. OCLC 1045069058. Retrieved 2019-03-27 – via Google Books.
Recent biographical accounts of (1731–1806), a mulatto whose father was a native African and whose grandmother was English, have done his memory a disservice by obscuring his real achievements under a cloud of extravagant claims to scientific accomplishment that have no foundation in fact. The single notable exception is Silvio A. Bedini's The Life of (New York, 1972), a work of painstaking research and scrupulous attention to accuracy which also benefits from the author's discovery of important and hitherto unavailable manuscript sources. However, as Bedini points out, the story of Banneker's involvement in the survey of the Federal District "rests on extremely meager documentation" (p. 104). This consists of a single mention by TJ, two brief statements by Banneker himself, and the newspaper allusion quoted above. In consequence, Bedini's otherwise reliable biography accepts the version of Banneker's role in this episode as presented in reminiscences of nineteenth-century authors. These recollections, deriving in large part from members of the Ellicott family, who were prompted by Quaker inclinations to justice and equality, have compounded the confusion. The nature of TJ's connection with Banneker is treated in the Editorial Note to the group of documents under 30 Aug. 1791, but because of the obscured record it is necessary here to attempt a clarification of the role of this modest, self-taught tobacco farmer in the laying out of the national capital.
First of all, because of unwarranted claims to the contrary, it must be pointed out that there is no evidence whatever that Banneker had anything to do with the survey of the Federal City or indeed with the final establishment of the boundaries of the Federal District. All available testimony shows that he was present only during the few weeks early in 1791 when the rough preliminary survey of the ten mile square was made; that, after this was concluded and before the final survey was begun, he returned to his farm and his astronomical studies in April, accompanying Ellicott part way on his brief journey back to Philadelphia; and that thenceforth he had no connection with the mapping of the seat of government. ...
In any case, Banneker's participation in the surveying of the Federal District was unquestionably brief and his role uncertain.
- Bedini, 1971, p. 103. "Curiously enough, the record of Banneker's participation rests on extremely meager documentation, consisting of a statement written in a letter by Thomas Jefferson and two statements made by Banneker himself."
- (1) "New Federal City" (PDF). Columbian Centennial (744). Boston, Massachusetts: Benjamin Russell. 1791-05-07. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-06-30. Retrieved 2016-10-09 – via boundarystones.org.
When Mr. Ellicott had ascertained the precise point from which the line of the district was to proceed, the Master of the Lodge and Dr. Stewart, assisted by others of their brethren placed the stone; ...
(2) Bedini, 1999, pp. 128, 331.
- (1) Bedini, 1969, p. 25.
(2) "New Federal City" (PDF). Columbian Centennial (744). Boston, Massachusetts: Benjamin Russell. 1791-05-07. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-06-30. Retrieved 2016-10-09 – via boundarystones.org.
- Bedini, 1969, pp. 28-29.
- Bedini, 1999, pp. 132, 136.
- Bedini, 1999, pp. 129, 132–136.
- Davis, Nancy M. (2001-08-26). "Andrew Ellicott: Astronomer…mathematician…surveyor". Philadelphia Connection. Lewis and Clark Trail Heritage Foundation: Philadelphia Chapter. Archived from the original on 2018-09-29. Retrieved 2019-03-01.
After the war, he (Ellicott) returned to Fountainvale, the family home in Ellicott Upper Mills, and published a series of almanacs, The United States Almanack. (The earliest known copy is dated 1782.)
(2) Bedini, 1999, pp. 97, 109, 210.
- Morrison, Hugh Alexander (1907). Preliminary Check List of American Almanacs: 1639-1800. Library of Congress. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. pp. 30–31. LCCN 06035021. OCLC 577096527. Archived from the original on 2018-12-31. Retrieved 2018-12-31 – via Google Books.
- "David Rittenhouse (1732–1796)". Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Archives & Records Center. Archived from the original on 2019-01-23. Retrieved 2019-02-28.
- Kelly, Kate. ". America Comes Alive. Archived from (1731-1806): Astronomer, Surveyor, Scientist, Writer"the original (blog) on 2017-11-15.
David Rittenhouse, a renowned mathematician, astronomer, and surveyor in Philadelphia, was sent a copy of Banneker's almanac for an initial read. He wrote back that the papers reflected "a very extraordinary performance considering the colour of the Author."
Charles Cerami's biography notes Banneker's reply: "I am annoyed to find that the subject of my race is so much stressed. The work is either correct or it is not. In this case, I believe it to be perfect."
- Banneker, 1791, p. 2.
- Banneker, 1791
- Banneker, 1792a
- Banneker, Benjamin (1792). OCLC 1053084527. 's almanac, for the year of our Lord, 1793. Baltimore: Printed and sold, wholesale and retail, by William Goddard and James Angell, at their printing-office, in Market-Street.
- Banneker, 1794
- Banneker, 1795
- (1) List of authorships: ". Shakeospeare. The "University of Iowa Libraries. 2017-03-14. Archived from the original on 2017-03-14. Retrieved 2017-03-14.
(2) Banneker, Benjamin (1793). 's almanac, for the year of our Lord, 1794. Philadelphia: Printed by William Young, No. 52, Second-street, the corner of Chesnut-street. OCLC 226246930.
(3) Banneker, Benjamin (1793). 's Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland and Virginia almanack and ephemeris, for the year of our Lord, 1794. Baltimore: Printed and sold, wholesale and retail, by James Angell, at his printing-office, in Market-Street. OCLC 62824561.
(4) Banneker, Benjamin (1793). The Virginia almanack, for the year of our Lord, 1794. Petersburg Va.: Printed by William Prentis. OCLC 62840340.
(5) Banneker, Benjamin (1794). Bannaker's Wilmington almanac, or ephemeris, for the year of our Lord 1795 ... Wilmington Del.: Printed by S. & J. Adams, for Frederick Craig. OCLC 62824551.
(6) Bannaker, Benjamin (1794). Benjamin Bannaker's Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia ALMANAC for the YEAR of our LORD 1795; Being the Third after Leap-Year. Baltimore: Printed for And Sold by John Fisher, Stationer. OCLC 62824557. Archived from the original on 2017-07-24. Retrieved 2019-03-01. In "Cover: Benjamin Bannaker". Baltimore, Maryland: Maryland Historical Society. 2018.
(7) Banneker, Benjamin (1794). Benjamin Bannaker's Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland and Virginia almanac, for the year of our Lord 1795: Being the Third after Leap Year. Philadelphia: Printed for William Gibbons, Cherry Street. OCLC 62824556.
(8) Bannaker, Benjamin (1794). Title Page. Bannaker's New-Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland and Virginia Almanac, or Ephemeris, for the Year of our LORD 1795; Being the Third after Leap-Year. Baltimore, Maryland: Printed by S. & J. Adams. OCLC 62824547. Archived from the original on 2014-08-13. Retrieved 2014-08-24 – via Library Company of Philadelphia..
(9) Banneker, Benjamin (1794). Banneker's New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland and Virginia almanac, or Ephemeris, for the year of our Lord 1795: Being the Third after Leap-Year. Wilmington, Delaware: Printed by S. & J. Adams. OCLC 1053444725. Archived from the original on 2019-03-30. Retrieved 2019-03-30 – via Villanova University: Falvey Memorial Library.
(10) Tise, Larry E. (1998). Africans in the Land of Liberty: African-American Enlightenment. The American Counterrevolution: A Retreat from Liberty, 1783–1800. Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books. p. 215. ISBN 0585347220. OCLC 47009059. Retrieved 2019-03-30 – via Google Books.
The 1795 edition saw three separate versions (of Banneker's almanac) published in Baltimore alone; a Wilmington publisher produced five editions for various distributors; and three Philadelphia printers offered editions, as did another in Trenton, New Jersey.
(11) Bedini, 1999 and Bedini, 1999, p. 195. "Meanwhile, editions of Banneker's almanac for 1795 were also produced sparately by three other Philadelphia printers, William Young, William Gibbons, and Jacob Johnson & Company. Yet another edition was published by Mathias Day of Trenton, New Jersey. The total of at least nine known editions of Banneker's almanac for the same year was remarkable, .... "
- (1) Banneker, Benjamin (1796). Bannaker's Maryland and Virginia almanack and ephemeris, for the year of our Lord 1797. Baltimore: Printed by Christopher Jackson, for George Keatinge's wholesale and retail book store, no. 140 Market-Street. OCLC 62824545.
(2) Banneker, Benjamin (1796). Bannaker's Virginia, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland and Kentucky almanack and ephemeris, for the year of our Lord 1797. Baltimore: Printed by Christopher Jackson, no. 67, Market-Street, for George Keatinge's book-store. Copy right secured. OCLC 62824549.
(3) Banneker, Benjamin (1796). Bannaker's Virginia, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland and Kentucky almanack and ephemeris, for the year of our Lord 1797. Richmond: Printed by Samuel Pleasants, Jun. near the vendue office. By privilege. OCLC 62824550.
(4) Banneker, Benjamin (1796). Bannaker's Virginia and North Carolina almanack and ephemeris, for the year of our Lord 1797. Petersburg VA: Printed by William Prentis and William Y. i.e., T. Murray. OCLC 62824548.
- Latrobe, pp. 10–11.
- Woodcut portrait of Benjamin Bannaker (Banneker) in Bannaker, Benjamin (1794). Benjamin Bannaker's Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia ALMANAC for the YEAR of our LORD 1795; Being the Third after Leap-Year. Baltimore: Printed for And Sold by John Fisher, Stationer. OCLC 62824557. Archived from the original on 2017-07-24. Retrieved 2019-03-01. In "Cover: Benjamin Bannaker". Baltimore, Maryland: Maryland Historical Society. 2018.
- (1) Banneker, 1791, p. 5. "A Tide-Table for the Chesapeake Bay."
(2) Banneker, 1792a, p. 34. "RULE: To find the Time of High-Water at the following Places."
(3) Banneker, 1794, p. 4. "RULE to find the Time of High-water at the following Places:"
(4) Banneker, 1795, p. 32. "TABLE, ..."
- (1) Banneker, 1791, pp. 7—18.
(2) Banneker, 1792a, pp. 4—26.
(3) Banneker, 1794, pp. 5—16.
(4) Banneker, 1795, pp. 4—15.
- Committee for relieving the Sick and Distressed, appointed by the Citizens of Philadelphia, Sept. 14th, 1793. "An Account of the Malignant Fever, which prevailed in Philadelphia, 1793". In Banneker, 1794, pp. 16—39.
- Bedini, 1999, p. 290.
- (1) Banneker, 1791, p. 2.
(2) Latrobe, p. 9: "In their editorial notice, Messrs. Goddard and Angell say, "they feel gratified in the opportunity of presenting to the public, through their press, what must be considered as an extraordinary effort of genius – a complete and accurate Ephemeris for the year 1792, calculated by a sable descendant of Africa," &c. And they further say, that "they flatter themselves that a philanthropic public, in this enlightened era, will be induced to give their patronage and support to this work, not only on account of its intrinsic merits, (it having met the approbation of several of the most distinguished astronomers of America, particularly the celebrated Mr. Rittenhouse,) but from similar motives to those which induced the editors to give this calculation the preference, the ardent desire of drawing modest merit from obscurity and controverting the long established illiberal prejudice against the blacks."
- United States Army Center of Military History. "James McHenry, Maryland" (PDF). Soldier-Statesmen of the Constitution: A Bicentennial Series. National Park Service. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-11-05. Retrieved 2015-01-02.
- (1) Banneker, 1791, pp. 2—4.
(2) McHenry, James C. (Baltimore, August 20, 1791). "A letter from Mr. James McHenry, to messrs. Goddard and Angel, containing particulars respecting . , a free negro"The American Museum, or Universal Magazine (September 1792). Philadelphia: Mathew Carey: 185–87. Retrieved 2015-01-02 – via Google Books.
(3) McHenry, James (Baltimore: August 10, 1791) in Allaben, pp. 70, 72. "... I consider this Negro as a fresh proof that the powers of the mind are disconnected with the colour of the skin, or, in other words, a striking contradiction to Mr Hume's doctrine, that the Negroes are naturally inferior to whites, and unsusceptible of attainments in the arts and sciences. In every civilized country, we shall find thousands of whites, liberally educated, and who have enjoyed greater opportunities for instruction than this Negro, his inferiors in those intellectual acquirements and capacities that form the most characteristic features in the human race. But the system that would assign to these degraded blacks an origin different from the whites, if it is not ready to be deserted by philosophers, must be relinquished as similar instances multiply; and that such must frequently happen cannot well be doubted, should no check impede the progress of humanity, which, meliorating the condition of slavery, necessarily leads to its final extinction.—Let, however, the issue be what it will, I cannot but wish, on this occasion, to see the Public patronage keep pace with my black friend's merit."
(4) Banneker 1792a, p. 2. "Baltimore, August 20, 1791. , a free black, is about fifty-nine years of age; he was born in Baltimore county; his father was an African, and his mother the offspring of African parents. – His father and mother having obtained their freedom, were enabled to send him to an obscure school, where he learned, when a boy, reading, writing, and arithmetic as far as double position; and to leave him, at their deaths, a few acres of land, upon which he has supported himself ever since by means of economy and constant labour, and preserved a fair reputation. To struggle incessantly against want is no ways favourable to improvement: what he had learned, however, he did not forget; for as some hours of leisure will occur in the most toilsome life, he availed himself of these, not to read and acquire knowledge from writings of genius and discovery, for of such he had none, but to digest and apply, as occasions presented, the few principles of the few rules of arithmetic he had been taught at school. This kind of mental exercise formed his chief amusement, and soon gave him a facility in calculation that was often serviceable to his neighbours, and at length attracted the attention of the Messrs. Ellicott, a family remarkable for their ingenuity and turn to the useful mechanics. It is about three years since Mr. George Ellicott lent him Mayer's Tables, Ferguson's Astronomy, Leadbeater's Lunar Tables, and some astronomic instruments, but without accompanying them with either hint or instruction, that might further his studies, or lead him to apply them to any useful result. These books and instruments, the first of the kind he had ever seen, opened a new world to Benjamin, and from thenceforward he employed his leisure in astronomical researches. He now took up the idea of the calculations for an Almanack, and actually completed an entire set for the last year, upon his original stock of arithmetic. Encouraged by this first attempt, he entered upon his calculation for 1792, which, as well as the former, he began and finished without the least information of assistance from any person, or other books than those I have mentioned; so that whatever merit is attached to his present performance, is exclusively and peculiarly his own. I have been the more careful to investigate those particulars, and to ascertain their reality, as they form an interesting fact in the History of Man; and as you may want them to gratify curiosity, I have no objection to your selecting them for your account of Benjamin."
(5) Letter from James McHenry regarding . Baltimore, April 20, 1791. In Phillips, pp. 115–116. "The following notice of Banneker is found, first published in his almanac for 1792, and republished with some abridgement in the one of 1793, from which we are making extracts. It was written by Banneker's esteemed admirer, James McHenry, who was afterward senator of Maryland, and evidently a man who appreciated intellect whether in the soul of the black or white. ..."
- Banneker, 1794, pp. 2, 17
- Perot, full text, pp. 137–138.
- Huber, Alexander (ed.). "Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard". Thomas Gray Archive. Oxford, Oxfordshire, England: Bodleian Libraries, University of Oxford. Archived from the original on 2014-12-21. Retrieved 2018-02-12.
"Full many a gem of purest ray serene,
The dark unfathomed caves of ocean bear;
Full many a flower is born to blush unseen,
And waste its sweetness on the desert air."
- Huber, Alexander (ed.). "Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard". Thomas Gray Archive. Oxford, Oxfordshire, England: Bodleian Libraries, University of Oxford. Archived from the original on 2014-12-21. Retrieved 2018-02-12.
"Nor you, ye Proud, impute to these the fault,
If Memory o'er their tomb no trophies raise,
Where through the long-drawn aisle and fretted vault
The pealing anthem swells the note of praise."
- Banneker, 1795, p. 2
- Tovey, Duncan C. (1907–1921). Ward, Adolphus W.; Waller, Alfred R.; Trent, William P.; Erskine, John; Sherman, Stuart P.; Van Doren, Carl (eds.). The Cambridge History of English and American Literature: An Encyclopedia in Eighteen Volumes: Volume X: English: The Age of Johnson. Chapter VI. Gray. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. Archived from the original on 2018-02-22. Retrieved 2018-02-22 – via Bartleby.com.CS1 maint: Date format (link)
(1) § 1. Gray's Family and Life
(2) § 9. An Elegy in a Country Churchyard.
(3) § 10. Characteristics of the Elegy.
- Bedini, 1999, p. 339.
- (1) Mason, pp. 240–244. "A Sketch of Ellicott's Mills, and an Account of , compiled from remembrances of 1796."
(2) Tyson, pp. 14–15.
(3) Perot, full text pp. 53–54, 138.
- (1) Mason
(2) Perot, full text p. 138.
- (1) Mason, pp. 244–246. "An Address to , an African Astronomer, who presented the author with a manuscript Almanack."
(2) Perot, full text pp. 53–54, 138.
- (1) Mason, p. 246.
(2) Tyson, p. 15.
(3) Perot, full text p. 54.
- Maryland Historical Society Library Department (2014-02-06). "The Dreams of . Underbelly: African American History. /"Maryland Historical Society. Archived from the original on 2014-12-16. Retrieved 2015-03-09.
- (1) Bedini, 1999, pp. 340–343.
(2) Tyson, pp. 17-18 Archived 2016-03-26 at the Wayback Machine
(3) Williams, p. 398 Archived 2015-06-13 at the Wayback Machine
(4) Fasanelli, Florence; Jagger, Graham; Lumpkin, Bea (June 2010). ". Loci. 's Trigonometry Puzzle"Mathematical Association of America. 2. Archived from the original on 2017-07-23. Retrieved 2017-07-23.
(5) Mahoney, John F. (July 2010). ". Loci. 's Inscribed Equilateral Triangle"Mathematical Association of America. 2. Archived from the original on 2014-02-21. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
(6) Mahoney, John F. (2014). "The Mathematical Puzzles of . AP Central. "College Board. Archived from the original on 2017-07-23. Retrieved 2017-07-23.
- (1) Latrobe, pp. 11–12. "In April, 1800, he (Banneker) writes: The first great locust year that I can remember was 1749. ... "
(2) Bedini, 1999, p. 264.
(3) Barber, Janet E.; Nkwanta, Asamoah (2014). ". Journal of Humanistic Mathematics. 4 (1): 112–22. 's Original Handwritten Document: Observations and Study of the Cicada"doi:10.5642/jhummath.201401.07. Archived from the original on 2014-08-27. Retrieved 2014-08-26. Page 115, Fig. 3: Image of page in 's Astronomical Journal, 1791-1806. Manuscript written by (MS 2700). Special Collection. Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore, Maryland: "The first great Locust year that I can Remember was 1749. .... ").
- Latrobe, p. 12.
- Banneker, 1791, p. 33.
- (1) Wilkinson, Thomas, of Yanwath (1789). An Appeal to England, On Behalf of the Abused Africans; A Poem. London: J. Phillips. LCCN 27007950. OCLC 6819709.
(2) Manning, Peter J. (1990). 11: "Will No One Tell Me What She Sings?": The Solitary Reaper and the Contexts of Criticism. Reading Romantics: Texts and Contexts. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 244. ISBN 0195057872. LCCN 89038917. OCLC 185506731. Retrieved 2018-02-20 – via Google Books.
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- (1) A Plan of a Peace-Office, for the United States. In Banneker, 1792a, pp. 5, 7, 9.
(2) Phillips, pp. 116–19
- (1) Whiteman, Maxwell (1969). In : Surveyor and Astronomer: 1731-1806: A biographical noteWhiteman, Maxwell (ed.) "The plan for a "Peace Office" in the Government of the United States, which also appeared in this issue (Banneker's 1793 Philadelphia almanac) has been attributed to Banneker. According to Edwin Wolf 2nd, Librarian of the Library Company of Philadelphia from whose institution these copies have been made, the "Peace Office" is the work of Dr. Benjamin Rush."
(2) Bedini, 1971, p. 186. and Bedini, 1999, p. 190. "Another important item included in the 1793 almanac was "A Plan of a Peace Office for the United States", which aroused considerable comment at the time. Many believed it to have been Banneker's own work. Even recently its authorship has been debated, but in 1947 it was identified beyond question as the work of Dr. Benjamin Rush in a volume of his own writings that appeared in that year." (Reference (Bedini, 1971, p. 361)): Dagobert D. Runes, ed. (1947). The Selected Writings of Benjamin Rush. New York: Philosophical Library. pp. 19–23.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)) (E-book: Runes, Dagobert D. (2015-05-26). A Plan of a Peace Office for the United States. The Selected Writings of Benjamin Rush. Open Road Integrated Media. pp. 29–33. ISBN 9781504013062. OCLC 928885110. Archived from the original on 2019-06-13. Retrieved 2019-06-13 – via Google Books.)
(3) Bedini, 1971, p. 187. "For some unexplained reason, it was published without identifying the author. Rush included the "Plan" in a collection of essays published five years later, with substantial additions to the text." (Reference (Bedini, 1971, p. 361)): Benjamin Rush (1798). Essays, Literal and Moral. Philadelphia: Thomas and William Bradford. pp. 183–188.) (E-book: Rush, Benjamin, M.D. (1798). A plan of a Peace-Office for the United States. Essays, Literary, Moral and Philosophical. Philadelphia: Thomas and William Bradford. pp. 183–88. ISBN 0912756225. LCCN 88080672. OCLC 53177918. Retrieved 2019-06-13 – via Internet Archive Digital Library.)
- "Benjamin Rush: 1745-1813: Representing Pennsylvania at the Continental Congress". Signers of the Declaration of Independence. ushistory.org. Archived from the original on 2018-02-07. Retrieved 2018-02-07.
- Allaben, pp. 65-69.
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- (1) Banneker, 1792b(1).
(2) Banneker, 1792b(2).
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(2) Bedini, 1999, p. 163.
(3) Freidel, Frank; Sidey, Hugh (2006). Thomas Jefferson. The Presidents of the United States of America (17th ed.). Washington, D.C.: White House Historical Association. ISBN 1857594096. LCCN 2007295201. OCLC 123955305. Archived from the original on 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2018-03-02 – via WhiteHouse.gov.
- Bedini, 1999, p. 190. "Banneker's friends and printers had wisely reserved the corresponce with Jefferson for inclusion in this second issue so that it could be given greater prominence. Banneker's letter to Jefferson and Jefferson's reply followed the introduction without editorial comment."
- (1) Allaben, p. 67.
(2) Banneker, 1792b(1), p. 8.
- Allaben, pp. 68-69.
- Banneker, 1792b(1), p. 10.
- (1) Day, Thomas. Fragment of an original letter on the Slavery of the Negroes, written in the year 1776. London: Printed for John Stockdale (1784). Boston: Re-printed by Garrison and Knapp, at the office of "The Liberator" (1831). pp. 10–11. LCCN 84185751. OCLC 1045544023. Retrieved 2014-02-26 – via Internet Archive.
.... you dare to call yourselves the masters of wretches whom you have acquired by fraud, and retain by violence! ....
If there be an object truly ridiculous in nature, it is an American patriot, signing resolutions of independency with the one hand, and with the other brandishing a whip over his affrighted slaves. ....
There can be no prescription pleaded against truth and justice; and the continuance of the evil is so far from justifying, that it is an exageration of the crime.
(2) Armitage, David (2007). The Declaration Of Independence: A Global History. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. p. 77. ISBN 978-0-674-02282-9. LCCN 2006050102. OCLC 748903542. Retrieved 2019-03-13 – via Google Books.
- (1) "A Great Man, but Flawed". The Washington Post. The Washington Post Company, Washington, D.C. 1992-10-31. p. A.21. Retrieved 2010-05-17.
... Wefald writes that when Jefferson received a letter and almanac from , Jefferson was "honest enough to change his position." Jefferson did not say that he had changed his opinion of the intellectual abilities of blacks. In his letter to Banneker, Aug. 30, 1791, Jefferson merely said: "No body wishes more than I do to see such proofs as you exhibit, that nature has given to our black brethren, talents equal to those of the other colors of men, and that the appearance of a want of them is owing merely to the degraded condition of their existence, both in Africa & America." Closely read, Jefferson's letter is only an indication that he "wishes to see such proofs", but there is no definite indication that he changed his mind. On Banneker's abilities Jefferson was ambivalent.
(2) Johnson, Richard. "Banneker, Benjamin (1731-1806)". Scientists. BlackPast.org. Archived from the original on 2014-03-09. Retrieved 2015-05-14.
Banneker sent a manuscript copy of his work to Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson along with a plea against the continuance of black slavery and received a courteous, if evasive, reply.
- (1) Jefferson, Thomas (1791-08-30). "Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Mr. . Image of letter in American Memory. Library of Congress. Archived from "the original on 2016-02-03. Retrieved 2016-02-28.
(2) Jefferson, Thomas (1791-08-30). "Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Mr. . Transcript of letter (July 22, 2010) in Thomas Jefferson Exhibition (July 27, 2010). "Library of Congress. Archived from the original on 2015-10-12. Retrieved 2016-02-28.
(3) Banneker, 1792b(2).
- (1) Acton, Harry Burrows (2016). "Marie-Jean-Antoine-Nicolas de Caritat, marquis de Condorcet". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 2016-01-02. Retrieved 2016-02-28.
(2) Hart, David M. (2014-04-10). "Marie-Jean-Antoine-Nicolas Caritat, marquis de Condorcet (1743-1794)". Online Library of Liberty. Liberty Fund, Inc. Archived from the original on 2015-09-06. Retrieved 2016-02-28.
- Bedini, 1999, pp. 163, 168.
- (1) Allaben, pp. 67-68.
"..., but that having taken up my pen in order to direct to you as a present a copy of my Almanac which I have calculated for the Succeeding year, ..... and altho I had almost declined to make my calculation for the ensuing year, in consequence of that time which I had allotted therefor being taking up at the Federal Territory by the request of Mr. Andrew Ellicott, yet finding my Self underal several engagements to printers of this State to whom I have communicated my design, on my return to my place of residence, I industrially applied my Self thereto, ...."
(2) Banneker, 1792b(1), p. 9, p. 10
- (1) Jefferson, Thomas (1791-08-30). "Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Marquis de Condorcet". p. 1. Archived from the original on 2015-06-07. Image of letter in "American Treasures of the Library of Congress". Library of Congress. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2016-02-28.
(2) Jefferson, Thomas (1791-08-30). "Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Marquis de Condorcet". p. 2. Archived from the original on 2015-06-07. Image of letter in "American Treasures of the Library of Congress". Library of Congress. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2016-02-28.
(3) "Transcript of letter from Thomas Jefferson to Marquis de Condorcet, August 30, 1791, from the Works of Thomas Jefferson in Twelve Volumes. Federal Edition. Collected and Edited by Paul Leicester Ford". The Papers of Thomas Jefferson at the Library of Congress Selected and converted: American Memory. Library of Congress. 1999. Archived from the original on 2016-02-29. Retrieved 2016-02-29.
(4) ""From Thomas Jefferson to Condorcet, 30 August 1791" (with editorial notes)". Founders Online: Thomas Jefferson. National Historical Publications & Records Commission: U.S. National Archives and Records Administration, last modified 2016-12-06. (Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 22, 6 August 1791 – 31 December 1791, ed. Charles T. Cullen. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986, pp. 98–99.). 1791-08-30. Archived from the original on 2016-12-29. Retrieved 2016-12-29.
- (1) Grégoire, Henri (1808). Bannaker (Benjamin). De la littérature des nègres, ou Recherches sur leurs facultés intellectuelles, leurs qualités morales et leur littérature, suivies de Notices sur la vie et les ouvrages des Nègres qui se sont distingués dans les Sciences, les Lettres et les Arts (in French). Paris, France: Chez Maradan, Libraire. pp. 211–212. OCLC 14928892. Retrieved 2019-06-13 – via Google Books.
(2) Thomas Jefferson's annotated copy in Library of Congress: Grégoire, Henri (1808). De la littérature des nègres, ou Recherches sur leurs facultés intellectuelles, leurs qualités morales et leur littérature, suivies de Notices sur la vie et les ouvrages des Nègres qui se sont distingués dans les Sciences, les Lettres et les Arts (in French). Paris, France: Chez Maradan, Libraire. LCCN 25020330.
(3) Partial English translation: Grégoire, Henri (1810). Bannaker. An enquiry concerning the intellectual and moral faculties, and literature of negroes; followed with an account of the life and works of fifteen negroes & mulattoes, distinguished in science, literature and the arts; Translated by D.B. Warden. Brooklyn, New York: Thomas Kirk. pp. 187–180. LCCN 68001371. OCLC 25657539. Archived from the original on 2016-06-29. Retrieved 2015-11-26 – via Google Books.
(4) Complete English translation: Grégoire, Henri (1996). Banneker. On the Cultural Achievements of Negroes: Translated with notes and an introduction by Thomas Cassirer & Jean-François Brière. Amherst, Massachusetts: University of Massachusetts Press. pp. 88–89. ISBN 0585142300. LCCN 95047293. OCLC 44961624. Retrieved 2016-05-31 – via Google Books. Archived 2017-01-30 at the Wayback Machine
- (1) Jefferson, Thomas (1809-10-08). Washington, H.A. (1853) (ed.). Correspondence: To Mr Barlow. The Writings of Thomas Jefferson; being his Autobiography, Correspondence, Reports, Messages, Addresses, and Other Writings, Official and Private. Published by the order of the Joint Committee of Congress on the Library, from the original manuscripts, deposited in the Department of State. 5. Washington, D.C.: Taylor & Maury. pp. 475–476. LCCN 06007150. OCLC 924409. Archived from the original on 2016-04-29. Retrieved 2019-06-13 – via Google Books.
(2) ""Thomas Jefferson to Joel Barlow" (with editorial notes)". Founders Online: Thomas Jefferson. National Historical Publications & Records Commission: U.S. National Archives and Records Administration, last modified 2016-12-06. (Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Retirement Series, vol. 1, 4 March 1809 to 15 November 1809, ed. J. Jefferson Looney. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2004, pp. 588–590.). 1809-10-08. Archived from the original on 2016-12-22. Retrieved 2016-12-22.
(3) Bedini, Silvio A. (1972). The Life of . Rancho Cordova, California: Landmark Enterprises. p. 282. OCLC 11379169. Retrieved 2018-06-01 – via Google Books.
- Clark, James W., Maryland Commission on Afro-American and Indian History and Culture, Annapolis, Maryland (1976-06-14). " Homesite"(PDF). Maryland State Historical Trust: Inventory Form for State Historic Sites Survey. Annapolis, Maryland: Maryland State Archives. p. 16. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-08-18. Retrieved 2015-11-15.
- Tyson, p. 17.
- "Obituary of . Federal Gazette and Baltimore Daily Advertiser. 1806-10-28. Archived from "the original on 2014-12-16. Retrieved 2016-03-29. From Maryland Historical Society Library Department (2014-02-06). "The Dreams of . Underbelly. "Maryland Historical Society. Archived from the original on 2014-12-16. Retrieved 2015-03-09.
- (1) Tyson, p. 10 Archived 2016-03-26 at the Wayback Machine and p. 12
(2) Bedini,1999, pp. 253–254
- (1) " " markerArchived 2011-10-19 at the Wayback Machine in website of hmdb.org: The Historical Marker Database Archived 2011-03-03 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 2008-08-27.
(2) Coordinates of Benjamim Banneker obelisk:
- Respers, Lisa (1996-08-01). "18th-century Banneker items to be auctioned: Museum organizers hope to buy rare artifacts". The Baltimore Sun. Archived from the original on 2017-12-26. Retrieved 2017-12-26.
- Tyson p. 18
- (1) Maryland Historical Society Library Department (2014-02-06). "The Dreams of . Underbelly. "Maryland Historical Society. Archived from the original on 2018-02-19. Retrieved 2018-02-19.
The astronomical journal is the only remaining artifact written in Banneker's hand, as his cabin and most of his belongings burned down in a fire as his body was being laid in the ground in 1806. On his instruction, the astronomical journal and some other loose manuscripts were removed upon his death and left to George Ellicott (1760–1832). The journal stayed in the hands of the Ellicott family until 1844 when it was deposited here at MdHS, where it was used by John H.B. Latrobe the following year. Quaker philanthropist and MdHS member Moses Sheppard (1771–1857) had the book rebound in Russian leather in 1852, and at this date most likely combined the astronomical journal with some of Banneker's loose manuscripts as well as a day book. At some unknown date the astronomical journal left MdHS and returned to the hands of the Ellicott family. It stayed there, away from the public's eye until 1987 when Ellicott family descendant Dorothea West Fitzhugh donated it in honor of her late husband Robert Tyson Fitzhugh. In 1999 MdHS sent the journal to the Center for Conservation in Philadelphia where it was rebound, deacidified, and given full conservation treatment.
(2) Tyson, pp. 2 , 18
- Tyson, pp. 17-18
- (1) Respers, Lisa (1996-08-01). "18th-century Banneker items to be auctioned: Museum organizers hope to buy rare artifacts". The Baltimore Sun. Archived from the original on 2017-12-26. Retrieved 2017-12-26.
A selection of rare items used by, noted black American scientist, is to be auctioned early next month, but organizers of the planned Banneker museum and park in Baltimore County hope to raise money to buy the artifacts first.
The items -- which include a William and Mary drop-leaf table, candlesticks and molds, and several documents -- are scheduled to be put on the block at Sloane's Auction House in Bethesda.
Jean Walsh, a member of the Friends of Historical Park, said the items had been in the possession of a descendant of George Ellicott, who at age 17 befriended the much older Banneker -- known as "the first black man of science."
"George was interested in astronomy, and he loaned a number of things to Banneker, including the table and several books," Walsh said....
Groundbreaking is planned for September for the long-awaited Historical Park and Museum in Oella, and Walsh and other supporters would like to exhibit the items there.
Gwen Marable, president of the organization, said an attempt had been made to persuade the owner, Elizabeth Wilde of Indianapolis, to donate or sell some of the artifacts to the museum.
"We want to spearhead an effort to keep these things here in Maryland," said Marable, a descendant of one of Banneker's three sisters.
Samuel Hopkins -- a descendant of the Ellicott family, who were mill owners and co-founders of Ellicott City -- said he encouraged Wilde to turn the artifacts over to the museum.
"I spoke to her some time ago and told her I thought it would be fine if she gave some of the stuff to the museum," Hopkins said. "I suggested to her that, if she did not give it to the society, that she might let the society make copies of the documents for display."
Patrick O'Neill, who is helping to arrange the auction for Sloane's, said the items are being appraised. Appraisal of historic pieces can be difficult, though officials expect the table to sell for $10,000 to $30,000. ....
According to Silvio A. Bedini, author of The Life of , the scientist instructed his nephews to return the table and books to the Ellicott family and give them some of his effects. The day of his funeral in 1806, Banneker's log cabin burned to the ground. It is on that site where the museum and park are to be built.
Bedini said the artifacts are especially valuable because they are among the few remaining privately owned Banneker items.
(2) McNatt, Glenn (1996-08-25). "Banneker items close to being auctioned". The Baltimore Sun. Archived from the original on 2017-12-26. Retrieved 2017-12-26.
Elizabeth Wilde, the Ellicott family member who inherited the Banneker-related items, plans to sell more than 20 Banneker artifacts and documents next month through C. G. Sloan auction house in Bethesda. Wilde, who lives in Indianapolis, has rebuffed appeals from Banneker historians, relatives and admirers to donate the artifacts to the new Banneker museum or give the sponsoring group more time to raise money so it can buy the items itself.
(3) Respers, Lisa (1996-08-29). "$50,000 donated to Banneker museum 'Friends' hope to keep rare artifacts in Md". The Baltimore Sun. Archived from the original on 2017-12-26. Retrieved 2017-12-26.
(4) "For sale: . 's legacy: Artifacts on the block: Business leaders should help bring rare items home"The Baltimore Sun. 1996-09-04. Archived from the original on 2014-12-02. Retrieved 2015-03-31.
- (1) Respers, Lisa (1996-09-09). "Coveted Banneker items going, going . . . gone: Dismayed local group outbid by Va. banker". The Baltimore Sun. Archived from the original on 2017-12-26. Retrieved 2017-12-17.
Emanuel Friedman, an investment banker and chairman of Friedman, Billings and Ramsey in Rosslyn, Va., made winning bids of $32,500 for the table, $7,500 for letters, a scrapbook and personal papers from the Ellicott estate, $6,000 for the candlesticks, and $3,750 for the ledger. .... Friedman said he planned to keep some for a personal collection and donate the rest to a new African-American Civil War Foundation museum being planned in Washington, which he believed would be willing to share the artifacts with the Banneker museum
(2) Respers, Lisa (1996-09-23). "Banneker artifacts sought on loan: Oella museum backers want to borrow items bought by D.C. banker". The Baltimore Sun. Archived from the original on 2017-12-26. Retrieved 2012-12-26.
- (1) Levine, Susan (1997-01-04). "A Banneker plan: Museums named for scientist to be lent artifacts". The Washington Post. The Washington Post Company, Washington, D.C. p. B.1. Retrieved 2010-05-17.
More than 190 years after his death, some prized possessions of renowned black scientistsoon will be coming home. The collection, which Banneker historians, relatives and admirers once feared would be dispersed forever when it was auctioned in Sep 1996, will be sent to two Maryland museums that bear his name.
(2) Respers, Lisa (1997-01-04). "Museum to display Banneker artifacts: Owner will allow objects to be shown for 20 years". The Baltimore Sun. Archived from the original on 2015-04-01. Retrieved 2015-04-01.
A happy ending is in sight for the planned Civil War monument and visitors center being built by his friend Frank Smith Jr., a Washington councilman. He said the entire collection, which includes other items of Banneker's period that did not relate to him, will be part of a Black History exhibit at The Corcoran Gallery of Art in Washington. They will then be turned over to the Banneker-Douglas Museum in Annapolis, until construction of the Oella museum is completed.Historical Park and Museum in Oella, outbid at auction last fall for valuable artifacts once owned by the noted African-American astronomer and inventor. Next week, the Virginia-based investment banker who paid $85,000 for a table, candlesticks, documents and other items is expected to sign an agreement allowing the museum to display the artifacts for 20 years. .... Items auctioned in Bethesda in September came from a descendant of the Ellicotts, a white family that forged a strong friendship with the scientist, who died in 1806. Among them: a maple and pine drop-leaf table believed to have been lent to Banneker by the Ellicott family, two candlesticks and a candle mold, a ledger from the Ellicott & Co. general store noting purchases by Banneker, and several documents and letters pertaining to Banneker and the Ellicotts. ..... Friedman, a history buff, donated the artifacts to a
(3) "Banneker dream a reality Oella: Artifacts of the 'first black man of science' on display in new museum and park". The Baltimore Sun. 1998-07-02. Archived from the original on 2015-04-01. Retrieved 2015-04-01.
The artifacts donated by Mr. Friedman, including a William and Mary drop-leaf table, candlesticks and documents, will be brought to the museum next year.
- (1) Scible, Kelly (2014-11-19). "Embracing history at the . Historical Park and Museum"Westminster, Maryland: Carroll County Times. Archived from the original on 2017-12-21. Retrieved 2017-12-21.
The museum has desk and candle molds used by Benjamin.
(2) Whittle, Syd (2015-09-19). "Desk used by in Museum, Oella, Maryland"(photograph). " " marker. HMdb: The Historical Marker Database. Retrieved 2017-12-21. Archived 2017-12-21 at the Wayback Machine
(3) "Candlestick and candle molds in . Explore Catonsville, MD, part of the ExploreMD.us network: Museum, Oella, Maryland" 's Historical Park & Museum Gallery. Ellicott City Graphic Arts Network. Archived from the original (photograph) on 2019-04-30. Retrieved 2019-04-30.
- (1) Maryland Historical Society Library Department (2014-02-06). "The Dreams of . Underbelly: African American History. "Maryland Historical Society. Archived from the original on 2014-12-16. Retrieved 2015-03-09.
Over the 200 years since the death of(1731–1806), his story has become a muddled combination of fact, inference, misinformation, hyperbole, and legend. Like many other figures throughout history, the small amount of surviving source material has nurtured the development of a degree of mythology surrounding his story.
(2) Cerami, p. 142. Archived 2015-06-07 at the Wayback Machine, "(Banneker) has existed in dim memory mainly on mangled ideas about his work, and even utter falsehoods that are unwise attempts to glorify a man who needs no such embellishment. ........"
(3) Johnson. "(Banneker's) life and work have become enshrouded in legend and anecdote."
(4) Whiteman, Maxwell. In : Surveyor and Astronomer: 1731-1806: A biographical noteWhiteman, Maxwell (ed.). "A number of fictional accounts of Banneker are available. All of them were dependent upon the following: Proceedings of the Maryland Historical Society for 1837 and 1854 which respectively contain the accounts of Banneker by John B. H. Latrobe and Martha E. Tyson. They were subsequently reprinted as pamphlets."
- Shipler, David K. (1998). The Myths of America. A Country of Strangers: Blacks and Whites in America. New York: Vintage Books. pp. 196–197. ISBN 0679734546. OCLC 39849003. Archived from the original on 2015-06-07 – via Google Books.
The Banneker story, impressive as it was, got embellished in 1987, when the public school system in Portland, Oregon, published African-American Baseline Essays, a thick stack of loose-leaf background papers for teachers, commissioned to encourage black history instruction. They have been used in Detroit, Atlanta, Fort Lauderdale, Newark, and scattered schools elsewhere, although they have been attacked for gross inaccuracy in an entire literature of detailed criticism by respected historians. ....
- (1) Bedini, 1969, p. 7. "The name of , the Afro-American self-taught mathematician and almanac-maker, occurs again and again in the several published accounts of the survey of Washington City begun in 1791, but with conflicting reports of the role which he played. Writers have implied a wide range of involvement, from the keeper of horses or supervisor of the woodcutters, to the full responsibility of not only the survey of the ten mile square but the design of the city as well. None of these accounts has described the contribution which Banneker actually made."
(2) Cerami, pp. 142–43 Archived 2015-06-07 at the Wayback Machine.
(3) Murdock. "This very well-researched book also helps lay to rest some of the myths about what Banneker did and did not do during his most unusual lifetime; unfortunately, many websites and books continue to propagate these myths, probably because those authors do not understand what Banneker actually accomplished."
(4) Toscano. "Some writers, in an effort to build up their hero, claim that Banneker was the designer of Washington. Other writers have asserted that Banneker's role in the survey is a myth without documentation. Neither group is correct. Bedini does a professional job of sorting out the truth from the falsehoods."
(5) Fasanelli, Florence D, " 's Life and Mathematics: Web of Truth? Legends as Facts; Man vs. Legend", a talk given on January 8, 2004, at the MAA/AMS meeting in Phoenix, AZ. Cited in Mahoney, John F (July 2010). ". Loci. 's Inscribed Equilateral Triangle - References"Mathematical Association of America. 2. Archived from the original on 2017-12-26. Retrieved 2017-12-26.
(6) Bigbytes. ". dcsymbols dot com. Archived from Stories"the original on 2010-01-20. Retrieved 2017-01-01. Archived 2003-12-06 at the Wayback Machine
(7) Levine, Michael (2003-11-10). "L'Enfant designed more than D.C.: He designed a 200-year-old controversy". History: Planning Our Capital City: Get to know the District of Columbia. DCpages.com. Archived from the original on 2003-12-06. Retrieved 2016-12-31.
- Dove, Rita (1983). "Banneker". Poems & Poets. Poetry Foundation. Archived from the original on 2018-02-20. Retrieved 2018-02-20.
(2) Newton, Amanda (2012-03-04). "Analysis on "Banneker" and "Parsley"". Spotlight on Rita Dove. Blogger. Archived from the original on 2018-02-20. Retrieved 2018-02-20.
(3) "Comprehensive Biography of Rita Dove". The Rita Dove Home Page. University of Virginia. Archived from the original on 2018-02-20. Retrieved 2018-02-20.
In 1993 Rita Dove was appointed Poet Laureate of the United States and Consultant in Poetry to the Library of Congress, making her the youngest person — and the first African-American — to receive this highest official honor in American poetry. She held the position for two years. .... Ms. Dove taught creative writing at Arizona State University from 1981 to 1989; subsequently she joined the faculty of the University of Virginia in Charlottesville, where, since 1993, she holds the chair of Commonwealth Professor of English.
Copies of Banneker's publications
- Banneker, Benjamin (1791). ". Baltimore: Printed and sold, Wholesale and Retail, by 's Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland and Virginia Almanack and EPHEMERIS, for the YEAR of our LORD, 1792; Being BISEXTILE, or LEAP-YEAR, and the Sixteenth Year of AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE, which commenced July 4, 1776"William Goddard and James Angell, at their printing-office, in Market-Street. – Sold, also, by Mr. Joseph Crukshank, Printer, in Market-Street, and Mr. Daniel Humphreys, Printer, in South-Front-Street, Philadelphia – and by Messrs. Hanson and Bond, Printers, in Alexandria. OCLC 62824558. Archived from the original on March 1, 2019. Retrieved 2019-03-01. In ". American Memory: The African American Odyssey: A Quest for Full Citizenship (exhibition): Free Blacks in the Antebellum Period: Part 1 — Individual Accomplishments. Washington, D.C.: , Mathematician"Library of Congress. 2008-03-21. Archived from the original on 2019-03-02. Retrieved 2019-03-02.
- Banneker, Benjamin (1792a). "Banneker's Almanack and Ephemeris for the Year of Our Lord 1793; being The First After Bisixtile or Leap Year". Philadelphia: Printed and Sold by Joseph Crukshank, No. 87, High-Street. In Whiteman, Maxwell (ed.)
- Banneker, Benjamin (1792b). Copy of a letter from Headline ScienceNow: Science News from Fisher Science Education. to the secretary of state, with his answer. No. 33. North Fourth-Street, near Race, Philadelphia: Daniel Lawrence – via
- (1) Pages 3–10: Banneker, Benjamin (1791-08-19). "Copy of a letter from , &c"(PDF). Baltimore County, Maryland. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-01-29. Retrieved 2017-03-12.
- (2) Pages 11–12: Jefferson, Thomas (1791-08-30). "To Mr. "(PDF). Philadelphia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-03-12. Retrieved 2017-03-12.
- Banneker, Benjamin (1794). Banneker's almanac, for the year 1795: Being the Third After Leap Year: Containing, (besides every thing necessary in an almanac,) an Account of the Yellow Fever, lately prevalent in Philadelphia, with the Number of those who died, from the First of August till the Ninth of November, 1793. Philadelphia: Printed for William Young, Bookseller, no. 52, the Corner of Chesnut and Second-Streets. OCLC 62824552. In Whiteman, Maxwell (ed.)
- Banneker, Benjamin (1795). Bannaker's Maryland, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Virginia, Kentucky, and North Carolina Almanack and EPHEMERIS, for the YEAR of our LORD 1796; Being BISSEXTILE, or LEAP YEAR; The Twentieth Year of AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE, And Eighth Year of the FEDERAL GOVERNMENT. Baltimore: Printed for Philip Edwards, James Keddie, and Thomas, Andrews and Butler; and Sold at their respective Stores, Wholesale and Retail. OCLC 62824546. Retrieved 2017-06-13 – via HathiTrust.
- Allaben, Frank. Original Document: Banneker's Appeal to Jefferson for Emancipation. The National Magazine: A Journal Devoted To American History: Vol. XVII, November, 1892 — April, 1893. New York: The National History Company. pp. 65–73. LCCN sf89099051. OCLC 608678167. Archived from the original on 2017-01-30. Retrieved 2016-02-28 – via Google Books.
- Arnebeck, Bob (1991). Through a Fiery Trial: Building Washington, 1790–1800. Lanham, Maryland: Madison Books. Distributed by National Network. ISBN 0-8191-7832-2. LCCN 90042343. OCLC 22006328. Retrieved 2017-10-07 – via Google Books.
- Bedini, Silvio A. (1964). "Early American Scientific Instruments and Their Makers: The Mathematical Practitioners: . United States National Museum Bulletin. Washington, D.C.: "Smithsonian Institution Museum of History and Technology (231): 22–25. LCCN 64062352. OCLC 999972. Retrieved 2017-10-07 – via Internet Archive.
- Bedini, Silvio A. (1969). " and the Survey of the District of Columbia, 1791"(PDF). Records of the Columbia Historical Society. 69/70: 7–30. JSTOR 40067703. OCLC 3860814. Archived from the original (pdf) on 2017-10-07. Retrieved 2013-01-13 – via boundarystones.org.
- Bedini, Silvio A. (1971). The Life of . New York: Scribner (copyright 1972). ISBN 0-684-12574-9. LCCN 78162755. OCLC 241422. Retrieved 2017-05-31 – via Google Books.
- Bedini, Silvio A. (Spring–Summer 1991). "The Survey of the Federal Territory: Andrew Ellicott and Historical Society of Washington, D.C. 3 (1): 76–95. JSTOR 40072968. ". Washington History. Washington, D.C.:
- Bedini, Silvio A. (1999). The Life of (2nd ed.). Baltimore: Maryland Historical Society. : The First African-American Man of ScienceISBN 0-938420-59-3. LCCN 98022848. OCLC 39024784. Retrieved 2017-05-31 – via Google Books.
- Murdock, Gail T. (2002-11-11). ". Customer review of Bedini, Silvio A. (1999). "The Life of – the man and the myths" : The First African-American Man of Science", 2nd ed., Baltimore: Maryland Historical Society. Amazon.com. Archived from the original on 2016-03-10. Retrieved 2017-03-18.
- Toscano, Patrick (March 2000). "Book review of Bedini, Silvio A. (1999), "The Life of . Professional Surveyor Magazine. : The First African-American Man of Science", 2nd ed., Baltimore: Maryland Historical Society"Frederick, Maryland: Flatdog Media, Inc. 20 (3). Archived from the original on 2014-04-26. Retrieved 2015-11-14.
- Bedini, Silvio A. (2008). "Banneker, Benjamin". Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Charles Scribner's Sons. Archived from the original on 2018-02-23. Retrieved 2018-02-23 – via Encyclopedia.com.
- ". Time Line" Historical Park & Museum, 300 Oella Avenue, Baltimore, MD 21228 in Explore Catonsville, MD, part of the ExploreMD.us network. Ellicott City Graphic Arts Network. May 2006. Archived from the original on 2017-06-24. Retrieved 2013-07-08.
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